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发布于:2019-3-12 10:20:57  访问:56 次 回复:0 篇
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April 01.Clauss et al.Pagehowever, no research in inhibited temperament have
Having said that, until these outcomes happen to be replicated in other research of inhibited temperament, these findings must be considered preliminary. 2.three.4. Summary of Human Research of Brain Structure--Structural MRI findings point to alterations in brain regions that mediate response to novelty, interest, and sensitivity to the atmosphere: the amygdala, OFC, and caudate. One caveat of these structural findings is that studies have already been restricted by somewhat tiny sample sizes plus a priori toxins8070227 choice of regions of interest. While both s12879-016-1718-5 Clauss et al (2014b) and Schwartz and colleagues (2010) also conducted complete brain (or entire cerebrum) analyses, statistical Marimastat Technical Information energy was restricted by little samples. Structural MRI research in bigger samples of inhibited adults, samples of inhibited kids, and non-human primates, are necessary to advance our know-how from the structural brain correlates of inhibited temperament. 2.five. Non-Human Primate Lesion Studies Non-human primates deliver a superb model for studying inhibited temperament, and rhesus monkeys in particular are equivalent to humans in socialization, neuroendocrine responses, and brain structure (Fox and Kalin, 2014; Kalin and Shelton, 2000; Oler et al., In press). A single distinct advantage for the use of non-human primates is the potential to test straight for causation by lesioning individual brain regions (Figure four). Additionally, by far the most typical dimensions of inhibited temperament in young humans--freezing and spontaneous vocalizations--can be readily measured in monkeys (Kalin and Shelton, 1989). As in humans, these measures are stable and reputable over time (Fox et al., 2008; Kalin and Shelton, 2003, 1989; Shackman et al., 2013), offering powerful evidence that inhibited temperament can be a trait observed across species. In non-human primates, inhibited temperament has been coined "anxious temperament" (Kalin and Shelton, 2003). Anxious temperament is measured applying behavioral and neuroendocrine assessments that parallel inhibited temperament assessment in humans. Monkeys with an anxious temperament have a complicated phenotype that consists of decreased cooing, improved freezing, and enhanced cortisol concentration (Kalin et al., 1998, 2000). Kalin and Shelton (1989) pioneered the usage of a behavioral job, referred to as the human intruder paradigm, to test for individual variations in anxious temperament. The human intruder paradigm involves 3 circumstances which are employed to measure response to novelty: the alone inside a new cage (ALN) condition, in which journal.ppat.1005766 monkeys are separated from their cageAuthor Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptProg Neuro.April 01.Clauss et al.Pagehowever, no studies in inhibited temperament have examined the partnership amongst EEG asymmetry and structural MRI. two.three.3. Basal Ganglia--We recently located that inhibited adults possess a larger caudate volume (Clauss et al., 2014b). This obtaining is intriguing in light of functional MRI research that show inhibited temperament is associated with enhanced activation in the caudate as well as other regions in the basal ganglia (Bar-Haim et al., 2009; Guyer et al., 2006; Helfinstein et al., 2011); nonetheless, in this study larger caudate volume was an unexpected discovering based on an exploratory complete brain analysis, and was not based on an a priori hypothesis. Monkeys with an anxious temperament have a complicated phenotype that incorporates decreased cooing, improved freezing, and get Apabetalone increased cortisol concentration (Kalin et al., 1998, 2000).
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